Unit 5 Outline



Western Civilization, 5th Edition,  Jackson J. Spielvogel

Chapter 18 The Eighteenth Century: European States, International Wars, and Social Change.

      Economic Expansion and Social Change (pages 507-512)

Chapter  20 The Industrial Revolution and Its Impact on European Society.
Chapter  21 Reaction, Revolution, and Romanticism, 1815-1850.  

Chapter  22  An Age of Nationalism and Realism, 1850-1871

     Industrialization and the Marxist Response (pages 629-633)

   [[Chapter 22 Readings have been removed from this unit]]


Discussion Questions:
  1. Why was Great Britain the first country to industrialize? 

  2. How was the principle of intervention established at the Congress of Vienna used by the Great Powers to both support and repress revolution? 

  3. Discuss the main ideologies of change in the first half of the 19th century. Which was the most powerful and why? 

  4. What accounted for the July Revolution in France?  Explain the division of opinion in groups that favored the revolution.  How was that conflict resolved?  What was the effect of the July Revolution on Great Britain?

  5. What attitudes were emerging among the working people of Britain and France?  What avenues were open to them for the improvement of their position?

  6. Why did revolutions break out in so many different places at once in Europe in 1848?  What can be said in general about these revolutions?





Industrial Revolution


Enclosure laws

Bank of England

John Law's "bubble"

the "putting-out" or "domestic system"

Richard Arkwright's

Samuel Compton

Thomas Newcommen

James Watt and the rotary engine

George Stephenson's Rocket

Great Exhibition of 1851, the Crystal Palace



Samuel Slater

Ireland's Great Hunger

Poor Law Commissioners

Edwin Chadwick

Barclays and Lloyds

"new elites"

working class


child labor

overproduction and cyclical depressions

trades unions

Combination Acts

Robert Owen



William Wordsworth

factory acts

Ten Hours



Social Change in the 19th Century


Congress of Vienna

Klemens von Metternich


balance of power

Edmund Burke and conservatism

Concert of Europe

the congress system

Greek Revolt

Tories and Whigs

Corn Laws and the Peterloo Massacre

Louis XVIII and Charles X


German Confederation


The Decembrist Revolt

Tsar Nicholas I


classical economics

Thomas Malthus

David Ricardo's "iron law of wages"

John Stuart Mill

On the Subjection of Women

utopian socialism

Charles Fourier's phalansteries

Robert Owen's New Lanark

Louis Blanc and Flora Tristan

July Revolution of 1830

Reform Act of 1832

Second Republic

Frankfurt Assembly


Louis Kossuth

Giuseppe Mazzini and Young Italy

serjents, "bobbies," and Schutzmannschaft

London Mechanics' Institute


The Sorrows of Young Werther

brothers Grimm

Sir Walter Scott

Mary Shelley's Frankenstein

Percy Bysshe Shelley and Lord Byron

William Wordsworth

Caspar David Friedrich

Eugene Delacroix

Ludwig von Beethoven